New Zealand is contemplating changes to its gambling laws about online gambling in New Zealand. Some of these changes are
In the campaign to prevent and minimize illegal casinos, gambling, and betting crimes in New Zealand, the Gambling Act of
New Zealand is contemplating changes to its gambling laws about online gambling in New Zealand. Some of these changes are
New Zealand is known for these online casinos. To have an online casino the casinos need to be heavily regulated
Within the past few weeks, the world has been navigating the unknown waters that have been caused by COVID-19. A
In the campaign to prevent and minimize illegal casinos, gambling, and betting crimes in New Zealand, the Gambling Act of
Online gambling or casinos is both legal and illegal in New Zealand. But before we get into that, New Zealand
As written under the Gambling Act of 2003, Subpart 7 entitled “Offences relating to gambling in casinos” there are three
When it comes to addressing big gambling issues, New Zealand is proactive. The main law for this particular issue, the
More and more developments are materializing in the casino and gambling industry in New Zealand. In other countries, most casino-related
New Zealand is contemplating changes to its gambling laws about online gambling in New Zealand. Some of these changes are controversial, some are expected, and some, it is unclear how they will affect the public. These laws and regulations about New Zealand are essential in determining the effect of gambling on society.
One of the leading concerns about online gambling in New Zealand is that new rules, regulations, and legislation may restrict its growth. There are several issues raised about the potential changes in gambling laws in New Zealand.
First, let us look at what the potential change in the law about online gambling would be. Several amendments are being considered to the Gaming Act 2020. One of these is the intention to restrict the location of licensed casino gambling to New Zealand. This is set to increase the tax burden on Internet casinos in New Zealand and therefore restrict access to those overseas gambling sites.
It was recently reported that the Gambling Commission has been preparing a paper on online gambling in New Zealand. The Gambling Commission says the article because it is concerned about the continuing increase in the popularity of Internet gambling. The Gambling Commission also has concerns about the growth of online casinos in New Zealand.
These sites will then be forced to follow the New Zealand legislation and regulations and may be needed to supply a website address and have a telephone hotline. This is an exciting process that is not set in stone. This would also give New Zealand a better say in regulating the overall gambling industry in New Zealand.
But the law does not always work in the government’s priorities. If online gambling is allowed, then one can find that the operators of Internet gambling sites are engaging in illegal activity. It seems that some of the issues have a greater influence on the legislation than others.
However, in addition to changes to the law and regulation concerning New Zealand, the government would not allow any online gambling advertisements. The reason for this is that, with the end of gambling prohibition, gambling has flourished in various countries around the world. New Zealand has the chance to work together with other countries in the world to regulate gambling on the internet and therefore stop the proliferation of gambling.
The government is concerned that potential changes in gambling laws in New Zealand could create some problems. A good example is a possibility of restricting Internet poker. The Gambling Commission is already proposing to tighten up the rules for the issuing of poker machine cards.
It is a strong message for the whole gambling world. The International Gambling Commission is one organization that offers legitimacy to gambling and the problem gambling networks.
The use of transacting casinos as a means of accepting money is also another matter that the government is concerned about potential changes in gambling laws in New Zealand. The New Zealand government wants to limit the involvement of transacting casinos in gambling. This will allow the government to have control over the transactions taking place on New Zealand’s Internet.
With the new laws and regulations on online gambling in New Zealand, there may be no gambling ads on television. This would prevent young people from becoming addicted to gambling on the internet. It is a tough position to put the government in but, and the government would need to make sure that people are not taken in by online gambling scams and the potential of internet gambling.
It has been estimated that transacting casinos already have $800 million of revenue in the country. The Gambling Commission believes that the proposed limit of a fifty percent cut on the transactions should not be a problem. They feel that this would be within the limits of proper regulation.
There is no limit to the number of ads a gambling website can have. This could increase the amount of money that would be put into the coffers of the gambling industry. The scale of the effect on the gambling industry is hard to predict as many of the future changes may not be introduced until after the change in laws and regulations with online gambling in New Zealand has been implemented.
While some of the issues are undoubtedly positive, some may cause problems for future generations. The potential changes in gambling laws in New Zealand have the potential to restrict the growth of online gambling. As well, there is the chance that the rules governing online gambling in New Zealand will lead to increased crime.
Given that the government is likely to give a lot of consideration to the proposals about online gambling, it is expected that the gaming companies will be more than happy to get the best results. This would mean that the laws and regulations with online gambling in New Zealand will be working towards the success of the gaming industry.
One of the potential changes in gambling laws in New Zealand is a ban on credit card payments. The banning of credit card payments is an issue of concern for the government.
A person looking to gamble online would probably not want to make their identity is known to the gambling industry and the gambling authorities, so it is clear that the government should maintain the confidentiality of an individual’s identity. This is important because it could be used to target and take advantage of vulnerable individuals.
It is one thing to have restrictions on Internet gambling, but there will be a lot of red tapes that will have to be laid down by the government. The government wants to ensure that the new rules will not hinder the growth of Internet gambling. The government also wants to help those who cannot gamble on an Internet site, to try out online gambling.
The first change will be to introduce legislation to prevent online gambling ads from appearing. This should work on the principle that the person doing the advertising is making a profit and should be prevented from making any profits. This will give the government more control over how the online gambling industry functions and will help to promote an even playing field.
There are a lot of people who can access Internet gambling from the comfort of their homes. However, the government may try to curtail access to Internet gambling by making it harder for card playing to be conducted from an Internet site.
One of the significant points of contention will be the rule on online gambling advertisements. One way to protect the rights of gambling establishments and ensure fairness is to have a commission on each transaction and no profit to gambling firms. This will reduce the power of gambling firms and help to level the playing field.
The government will not be able to prevent the creation of websites or programs, which will promote certain issues like gambling unless certain issues are addressed. The online gambling industry is still relatively young, so it will take some time for changes in gambling laws in New Zealand to be noticed by the larger players in the New Zealand gambling industry.
Potential changes in gambling laws in New Zealand might be considered on their terms, but it would be essential to consider their effects in the broader society. Also, it is necessary to consider that the potential changes in gambling laws in New Zealand are just a way of trying to regulate and control the Internet gambling industry.
New Zealand is known for these online casinos. To have an online casino the casinos need to be heavily regulated to make sure they operate legally. Some great casinos are legitimate and can give the player a chance to win some money. These are some of the best legal casinos in New Zealand. These games are regulated by the gaming board to make sure players have a fair chance of winning.
This casino has been in operation since 2012 and is allowing people to play the games on mobile devices. This way a person can play their games while they are on the go. The casino has some great bonuses and will allow a player to get a match from the casino on their deposits. There is customer support and they can be reached by email or by chat. This site will accept major credit cards and withdrawing the winnings is easy. This casino offers a huge selection of games including hundreds of video poker and table games for the player. There is Roulette Blackjack, and many other table games to select from. The casino is licensed and regulated by the Malta Gaming Authority and is also eCOGRA certified. All of the casino games are tested and audited regularly so that they are said to be safe and fair to the player. This casino also uses SSL encryption so that a player can be safe.
This casino will match the first deposit from the player and they will also get some free spins. The player will be able to enjoy some of the best casino games and can find their favourite video poker games. They offer bonus spins on the game. This site accepts all major credit cards and they will also accept Paypal. This site is also regulated by the Malta gaming commission and is licensed to provide gaming services.
This online casino has some of the best slot machine games. They have a large variety of games to select from with the latest graphics. The games offer interactive features so a person can have fun playing from their home. New games are being posted often. A person can play the Quickspin Rewards and build up their winnings even faster. They will also get access to some new features. This site has some online race games for the players to bet on. There are also games of chance and other great promotions for new and existing players. There are high-quality live streaming games that will allow a player to play against a dealer and other live players. There are also table games to select from. This site has some of the best games and there is something for everyone. There is a game that any player will find interesting no matter what they enjoy playing.
This casino has an ancient Egyptian theme. It takes the player back in time and gives them the chance to find some hidden treasure. There are over 600 slot machine games to choose from and there are also many table games. There are also card games and games specifically designed for this site through Microgaming. The lobby is bright and colourful and showcases some of the best games that this site has to offer. When a player makes their deposits the site will match the first three deposits that a player puts in their account. The Palace Group Lobby Club is a club for players where they will earn points on every game that they play. They will then be able to use their points for casino credits and they can turn these credits into money or free gameplay. A player will need to deposit money from their bank and this site also uses major credit cards. The casino uses encryption and firewalls to make sure all communication and personal data are protected. There is customer support 24 hours a day through a char feature. A player can use this site on their home computer or they can also take the casino action on the go with them by playing the games on their smartphone or tablet.
This casino has been around in New Zealand since 1997. The casino has some great features and has a large selection of Microgames. These games received a high rating from players and the gaming association. Players like all of the offers and the features of these games and the site are secure. Players are looking for sites that are fun and secure and that is one reason why this is a favourite site for many people. A player can get a 100 per cent match on the first three deposits that they make into their player account. Other promotions are offered and there are exciting offers at all times. Players will earn points as they play the games and they can turn these points in for some great rewards. This online casino allows deposits from banks and major credit cards. There is a secure and advanced 128 bit SSL encryption to keep the player’s information safe and secure. There is also live chat for those that need help. This chat is available 24 hours a day every day of the week. There is also a FAQ section if a player is looking for an immediate answer. There are some great games to select from. There are many video poker games. There are also games such as roulette, blackjack, and video poker. This game can be accessed on a home computer and it can also be found on mobile phones and devices.
These are some of the best legal casinos in New Zealand. They have some great games for the players and they take actions to keep the players’ accounts safe. These casinos are regulated and they are tested to make sure the games are fair and give the players a real chance to win. These are legal casinos in New Zealand and they offer the players the chance to win some real money.
Within the past few weeks, the world has been navigating the unknown waters that have been caused by COVID-19. A few countries have mandated lockdowns. On March 25 New Zealand went into lockdown, and life has been turned upside down. People went from seeing people walking the streets, eating in cafes, meeting up with friends; the next day inside their houses. All with the hopes of being able to stop the spread of the virus. The lockdown is to be adhered to for the next four weeks. Once again, it is in hopes to stop the spread as quickly as it has been going.
Many people are no longer working. With that, many businesses are no longer up and running. Some business is dealing with a harder financial hit than others. The business that needs people to come in is taking a very hard hit. Casinos are no longer in business. With the fear of spreading the virus, casinos can not function due to having too many people in one place congregating. Not to mention having to make sure everything is sanitized to help combat the spread of the virus. Casinos and other jobs within the tourism busy count for 14% of the jobs in New Zealand, which is about 400,000 jobs. And they are predicting that at least 100,000 jobs may be completely lost.
Before the full lockdown casinos were doing everything that they could to keep revenue coming in while keeping patrons safe. Casinos were unplugging two machines between others, to help maintain a safe distance away from each other. Making sure that they were staying safe, people were also taking those precautions. People had stopped using casinos as much as they use to. Which brought about uncertain times. People were worried about the loss of jobs for those that worked within the casinos. Certain parts of the casino were being closed, quite a few casinos were running at 75 to 80 % of their business open. It was just a matter of time before these businesses closed down. Out of the cases that they have reported, most of them have been vacationers visiting from other countries. When people go out to a place that is known for casinos, it is only natural that they stop and visit for a while.
Just like any good business, most casinos had a business plan in place to help their business if a full lockdown were to happen. Casinos started to help get plans in place on what they should do for their business in case of a lockdown. While they will take a huge financial hit, there should have been some time to be able to help get a plan in place to help reduce how much revenue is lost.
New Zealand’s business chief, Kirk Hope, has put out a package for businesses. In his plan, if a business reports more than a 30% loss in any month within the first half of 2020, these businesses can apply for a subsidy of $585 a week per full-time worker up to a maximum of $150,000 for 12 weeks. They will also provide funding of $126 million for businesses. This will allow businesses to give their workers at least 14 days of paid leave. It is only for 14 days, so some people will be out longer than that and it will be without pay.
New Zealand government has put out a stimulus package to help stop the fears of a recession. It is only 4% of the gross domestic product. They are also preparing for this to be worse off than in 2008 when the stock market started to crash. They want to make sure that big business we will be able to stay afloat. Hopefully, some of the casinos will be getting some of this put towards their revenue.
With casinos having to close for an unknown time is going to affect their business severely. While it is nice to be able to pay your employees for two weeks, it does not include the loss of revenue and keeping the behind the scene bills paid. It will be very hard for casinos and all businesses to be able to keep positive at the moment. With everything being so uncertain there is no idea when this will pass. Making it very uneasy for casinos to know when it is ok to open their doors again to start getting revenue back in. There is only so long casinos can stay closed before they may have to keep their doors closed for a long time, and worse, possibly never open their doors again. Hopefully, with all the precautions that have been taken, it is sooner rather than later casinos will be opening their doors again.
In the campaign to prevent and minimize illegal casinos, gambling, and betting crimes in New Zealand, the Gambling Act of 2003 was introduced. The act aims to control and monitor the growth of the casino and gambling industry in the country.
However, the law targets other objectives such as to promote responsible gambling, avoid social issues rooted from gambling addiction, and more. To do that, the Department of Internal Affairs administered the law and came up with 4 different gambling classes.
The classes are determined on the number of money expenditures and the level of risk they bring to the table. The 4 gambling classes are Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, and Class 4.
All money items here are New Zealand dollars in value. Also, for Classes 1, 2, and 3, “the value of any non-cash prizes is the retail value” as stated by the Gambling Act of 2003.
In Class 1, potential turnover or prizes given to players or gamblers does not exceed $500. In this class, the gambling or betting operation is administered or operated by individuals. All profit generated is to be distributed as cash prizes. There is no need to acquire a license for Class 1 gambling.
It is also in the law that if it is run by a society, profits must be distributed to gambling proceeds. These proceeds must be non-commercial and must be charitable and beneficial for the community.
In Class 1, the prizes for one session must not exceed $500, in class 2, the limit is $5,000. Potential turnover for one session must not go beyond $25,000. Just like with 1, 2 does not require a license to operate.
Class 2 gambling is centred on gambling proceeds, meaning, it must be operated by a society. With that, the society must be transparent with its information at the point of sale and transactions.
Information like name of the society, mission report, prizes, and more must be easily attained and visible.
First of all, this class requires operators to have a license. Prizes in this class can exceed $5,000. Just like with 2, it must be operated by a society. Profits should be focused on authorized purposes.
Class 3 are mostly large operation lotteries, instant games, and other forms of gaming sessions. By the way, a housie operation must be headed by a corporate society.
Gaming machines are not permitted in this class. If your operation meets the rest of the requirements but uses a gaming machine, it’s not considered Class 3.
To be deemed Class 3, the Department of Internal Affairs must give its approval if the operation is financially stable and viable. It is also a requirement for costs to be minimized and community returns maximized.
If a gambling operation uses gaming machines outside a casino, operated by a corporate society, and raises money for authorized purposes, it’s class 4.
It is important to be aware of these gambling classes, especially if you are planning to open a casino. For more content related to the casino scene in New Zealand, subscribe to our online magazine today.
Online gambling or casinos is both legal and illegal in New Zealand. But before we get into that, New Zealand is proactive when it comes to security and monitoring the casino industry in the country.
The Department of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Health, and other entities (both government and non-government) are directly involved in addressing gambling-related issues.
Now, casino games and gambling, heck even sports betting are allowed in New Zealand. There are many casinos and racetracks all over the country.
It’s a little different for online casinos or gambling though.
Now, let’s dissect.
Kiwis can participate in online gambling. They can sign-up for accounts, place bets with real money, and all of that.
There are hundreds of online casino websites accessible in New Zealand.
But, here’s the twist in this story.
That’s right, you can avail online gambling services in New Zealand, but you can’t provide these services and operate within New Zealand. That is why all online casinos Kiwis engage with are based overseas.
Making news these days in New Zealand is the partnership between GiG (Gaming Innovation Group) Malta and SkyCity in New Zealand. The two launched a New Zealand-facing online casino based in Malta.
So basically, it’s an online casino operated by a New Zealand company. The launch made it through without violations.
But, the Department of Internal Affairs is still concerned about this. They think that the growth of online gambling in the country will result in an increase in gambling addiction. They have already taken a step to tackle this. They are planning to ban the use of credit cards for online casinos.
There are still no updates if the proposal will make it through. To stay notified, make sure to keep reading our magazine.
As written under the Gambling Act of 2003, Subpart 7 entitled “Offences relating to gambling in casinos” there are three offences in total. Keep in mind that these offences are punishable by law.
The punishment includes imprisonment not exceeding three years or a fine not exceeding $50,000.
The level of punishment is of course according to which subsection was violated. To put this into perspective, here are the three gambling offences.
Section 351 subsection 1 reads “Every person who commits the offence of cheating in a casino venue who knowingly contravenes the rules of a game to obtain a pecuniary advantage (whether directly or indirectly) on the person’s behalf or on behalf of any other person.”
There have already been reports of casino cheating with players conspiring with dealers. Violators caught cheating may be imprisoned not exceeding 1 year or pay a fine not exceeding $20,000.
If an individual is caught in possession or using equipment capable of manipulating the casino game’s outcomes, he or she will face the law. The usage of such equipment in a way, gives the cheater the edge, beyond the established house edge for casino games.
The house edge is seen as a given advantage to casino games over players. So, the higher the house edge, the lower your chances of winning. Cheating equipment not only decreases the house edge but eliminates it.
That will result in serious payouts coming the cheater’s way.
This is punishable by imprisonment not exceeding one year or a fine not exceeding $20,000
Using, selling, and distributing counterfeit chips to be used for gambling at a casino venue is against the law. Out of all the offences, this one is considered the most serious one.
Counterfeit chips are imitations of casino chips that have a monetary value. The forgeries of this casino currency is an issue not only in New Zealand. The punishment for this crime is at least 3-years imprisonment and a fine no more than $50,000.
There are so much more to learn about the Gambling Act of 2003. The prohibitions under the law are to promote legal casino and gambling operations. But that is not all. It is also there to protect people from the threats of gambling.
When it comes to addressing big gambling issues, New Zealand is proactive. The main law for this particular issue, the Gambling Act of 2003, was administered by the Department of Internal Affairs or DIA.
Since the law was passed back in 2003, the DIA has been the main government entity battling illegal gambling, illegal casinos, gambling addiction, and other related issues. But, the DIA is not alone in carrying out this national mission.
The Ministry of Health also plays a vital role in addressing and resolving gambling-related issues in New Zealand.
The role of the Ministry of Health is divided into three.
In New Zealand, problem gambling, compulsive gambling, or more commonly known as gambling addiction all over the globe, is a big issue. There are thousands of people experiencing this downfall and they need all the help they can from everyone willing to help out.
These national and local problem gambling services include public health offices in different cities and gambling helplines available nationwide. The Ministry of Health partnered up with casino companies all over the country to promote and provide public health services prioritizing problem gambling.
This is a national freephone support service active 24/7. People can call-in day and night via 0800 654 655 or send a text to 8006. The Ministry of Health is tasked in providing funding and coordinating these services.
To solve the problem, first, we must accept its presence and understand it deeply. The Ministry of Health is also responsible for educating and informing people all about problem gambling and subsequent issues.
They are not only educating people, but they are encouraging them to engage and be part of the solution. Problem gambling takes its toll not only on the person but to his or her loved ones as well.
Problem gambling will only result in negative personal, financial, psychological, and physical outcomes. The Ministry is working with HPA or Health Promotion Agency with this one.
HPA provides health promotion services for different health and personal well-being related issues in the country.
It is also the Ministry’s job to conduct accurate and in-depth research on the different aspects resulting in the many issues related to gambling. This is vital in coming up with ideas, campaigns, and initiatives to battle these issues not only on a national level but globally.
To learn more about this topic, subscribe to our online magazine today.
More and more developments are materializing in the casino and gambling industry in New Zealand. In other countries, most casino-related news is focused on illegal online casinos, false mergers, and of course, gambling addiction.
Well, not in New Zealand. We’re not saying that the country is immune to those issues, they’re not. But with strict laws and direct compliance from operators and gamblers, gambling in New Zealand is productive.
Here are the latest casino news making rounds.
According to the Gambling Act of 2003, setting up a New Zealand-based online gambling operation is illegal. Only government-owned Lotto and the TAB New Zealand racing board are allowed operate internet gambling within the country.
People are allowed to gamble online, as long as the website or the program is situated overseas.
In August 2019, GiG (Gaming Innovation Group) Malta, a casino and sports betting public company partnered with SkyCity in New Zealand. The two launched a New Zealand-facing online casino site based in Malta and is under GiG’s Maltese license.
This news will surely result in more partnerships. Despite being partly owned by a New Zealand company, the online casino is not going against the rules.
The Department of Internal Affairs is pushing for a law to ban credit cards from online gambling usage. This was presented after theGiG and SkyCity news. The department is hoping to protect people from online threats while preventing problem gambling, which is rooted in online gambling these days.
The proposal quickly got support from several people butreceived some negative feedback as well. Many people believe credit card transactions are important and necessary for online gambling. Others, not so much.
We are excited to see further developments connected to this news. Subscribe to our online magazine for more content about casino laws and issues in New Zealand.
New Zealand has an extensive set of rules to promote responsible and legal casino operations in the country. Under the Gambling Act of 2003, the Department of Internal Affairs hopes to promote the true essence of gambling, fairness and enjoyment.
With the law in place, casinos are free to operate freely, as long as they follow the rules.
So, if you’re feeling lucky, here are the best casino destinations you’re gonna want to go to.
Auckland, New Zealand’s most populous city is a top destination when it comes to casino and gambling activities.
Located along Victoria Street and Federal Street, SkyCity Auckland is one of the besthotels and casino destinations in the city.
SkyCity is located in the heart of the business district and is known for its 5-star quality hotel, dining, entertainment, and casino.
The Sky Tower is also one of the biggest highlights of SkyCity. But, we’re here to talk about the casino. SkyCity offers the full casino experience from table games, to slots, all the way to SkyTower poker games. They also offer premium membership to give regulars rewards and perks.
SkyCity Auckland’s gaming areas observe and apply rules implemented by the Gambling Act of 2003. They only allow people aged 20 or above to enter the casino areas. The casino is also vocal and active in reminding their patrons to be responsible and to establish a limit with their gambling urges.
The casino even has the number of Gambling Helpline on their website.
Truly one of, if not, the best casino in all of New Zealand. Dunedin is known for its luxurious casino floor blended with the best interior design and aesthetics. Just like SkyCity, Dunedin is a hotel and casino destination.
However, Dunedin leaned more on the casino part of things. Dunedin offers the most exclusive casino memberships and accommodation all over the country. Gambling in Dunedin aims to promote “good value” and “great fun.”
To prevent problem gambling among their regulars, Dunedin partnered with several specialist problem gambling providers.
They will even help you connect with the specialist you need to talk to.
Dunedin and SkyCity casinos are truly two of the most responsible casino centres all over the globe.
New Zealand’s Gambling Act 2003 was approved on September 18, 2003, and is administered by the Department of Internal Affairs. The main goal is to allow legal, fun, and productive casino and gambling services in the country.
According to the law, casino locators can organise, use, manage, supervise, and operate gambling and/or gambling equipment. It also allows them to distribute turnovers such as money prizes and meeting costs.
Not only that, but they are also able to sell tickets to people wanting to gamble and promote gambling.
All this is allowed, as long as they follow the rules written under the act. Not only the Department of Internal Affairs but the entire government inNZ wants to achieve the following with this law.
The casino or gambling industry is a big one, not only in New Zealand. There will always be a large number of consumers or gamblers if you will. The casino industry in NZ is growing and the government wants to keep that growth organized and monitored.
With growth comes more opportunities for providers, but also illegal operations.
Just like all countries with casinos, gambling addiction is a big issue in New Zealand. It’s not always jackpots. There are several reports of gambling addiction or problem gambling all over the country.
People’s lives are getting messed up personally, professionally, financially, mentally, and even physically.
The law not only prevents casino operations getting out of hand. It also helps people understand and apply responsible gaming for everyone to enjoy, the right way, the legal way.
Opening and operating a casino or gambling services in NZ is regulated. That means authorising those providers following the law and refusing those who are not. This creates a fine line between what’s right and what’s wrong.
This one is for both providers and consumers. It goes hand in hand with responsible gambling. A provider must be fair with their operation and give everyone the chance to lose and win.
The law is also strict in making sure illegal casinos and gambling operations never set up shop in New Zealand. Whether it is offline or online, NZ is targeting casino operations getting out of line. Unfortunately, there have been reports of confirmed illegal gambling activities.
But, the government with the help of the organization and the people, are working together to stop these activities.
The law also values the opinion and feedback of the people when it comes to casinos and gambling. It is important to get their side on matters related to these factors.
Just like most laws in New Zealand, the Gambling Act 2003 also encourages casino providers to give back to the community. These businesses or companies make millions of dollars. A small amount of that profit will surely benefit millions of lives.